Dreyfus, Alfred

   A French Jew and artillery captain attached to the general staff of the French army. In 1894, he was accused of selling military secrets to Germany and placed on trial for espionage and treason. He was tried by a military court and sentenced to life in prison on Devil's Island. His sentence was contested by a minority group consisting mainly of intellectuals, called "Drey-fusards," who claimed the evidence against Dreyfus was based on forged documents. Among other developments, the trial led author Emile Zola to write his famous "J'accuse" in 1898. Public opinion became so aroused that the military was forced to reopen the case. Dreyfus was again found guilty, but the sentence was reduced to 10 years in prison. Dissatisfaction with the verdict persisted, and in 1906, Dreyfus was exonerated. The sharp controversy that the case triggered caused a wave of anti-Semitic demonstrations and riots throughout France. The Dreyfus trial was considered an important indicator of growing anti-Jewish sentiment in Europe and helped to awaken Jewish nationalistic feeling. Theodor Herzl covered the first Dreyfus trial as a newspaper correspondent and later said that the case convinced him that assimilation was not the solution to the problem of anti-Semitism. See also DER JUDENSTAAT; JEWISH QUESTION; ZIONISM.

Historical Dictionary of Israel. .

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  • DREYFUS, ALFRED — (1859–1935), officer in the French army, involved in a treason trial. His court martial, conviction, and final acquittal developed into a political event which had repercussions throughout France and the Jewish world. Born in Mulhouse, Alsace,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Dreyfus, Alfred — born Oct. 19, 1859, Mulhouse, France died July 12, 1935, Paris French army officer, subject of the Dreyfus Affair (l Affaire). Son of a Jewish textile manufacturer, he studied at the École Polytechnique, then entered the army and rose to the rank …   Universalium

  • Dreyfus, Alfred — (1859 1935)    military officer    Alfred Dreyfus is best known for being the center of the major controversy known as the Dreyfus affair. Born in Mulhouse to a Jewish Alsatian family, Dreyfus pursued a military career and, in 1893, as an… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Dreyfus, Alfred — (1859–1935)    The French officer in the Dreyfus Affair. Born into a middle class assimilated family in Alsace, Dreyfus took up a military career, and was commissioned as an artillery officer. After completing a staff course, he was posted to the …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Dreyfus, Alfred — (1859 1935)    French soldier. He was born in Alsace. He became a captain on the general staff of the French army in 1892. In 1894 he was accused of treason, found guilty, and sentenced to life imprisonment. He protested his innocence and was… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Dreyfus, Alfred — ► (1859 1935) Militar francés. En 1894 fue acusado de alta traición y condenado a deportación. Su proceso dio lugar al célebre affaire Dreyfus. * * * (19 oct. 1859, Mulhouse, Francia–12 jul. 1935, París). Oficial del ejército francés que… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Dreyfus,Alfred — Drey·fus (drīʹfəs, drā ), Alfred. 1859 1935. French army officer of Jewish descent who was convicted of treason (1894), sentenced to life imprisonment, and ultimately acquitted when the evidence against him was shown to have been forged by anti… …   Universalium

  • Dreyfus, Alfred —  (1859–1935) French officer whose wrongful imprisonment on Devil’s Island became a celebrated controversy …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Dreyfus — Dreyfus, Alfred …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Alfred Dreyfus — [alˈfʀɛd dʀɛˈfys] (* 9. Oktober 1859 in Mülhausen; † 12. Juli 1935 in Paris) war ein französischer Offizier. Seine ungerechtfertigte Verurteilung wegen Landesverrats löste 1898 die Dreyfus Affäre …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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